The Christian Kingdom Of Jerusalem


 

 

Christianity In 500 AD, BEFORE ISLAM

 

 

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Wardruna – Dagr (Lyrics)


 

 

I hail the sun!
Rising from darkness,
up into Day.

From the void of Ginnunga
Yggdrasil, ash.
In your light, fields shall grow.
In your darkness, fields shall die.

 

http://wardruna.com/

 

 

Muslim invasion part of global agenda, aimed at destabilizing and destroying Western nation states


Henri's Web Space

A friend recently emailed me an anonymous comment allegedly posted on Facebook by a History professor, which tells “another side of the story” that has been constantly spoon-fed to us by the mainstream media regarding the so-called “refugee” crisis. This inspired me to pause and gather my thoughts on this portentous matter. You make of it what you will.

I started by revisiting several questions that have been nagging me, for instance: why is it this so-called “refugee” crisis sprung up all of sudden, while wars have been ravaging the Middle East and North Africa for several years?

There is no doubt in my mind that like the so-called Islamic State that suddenly sprung fully formed and equipped out of the deserts of Syria and Northern Iraq, this new crisis has been engineered and orchestrated by some of our occult rulers (represented by the likes of George Soros) to…

View original post 1,419 more words

U.N. Watch : Son Of Hamas


 

 

What You Need to Know about Islam | Usama Dakdok


What You Need to Know about Islam | Usama Dakdok  

 

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“I’m as mad as hell and I’m not going to take it anymore!”


 

 

Poppy Day 11.11


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French and Swiss police arrest 10 jihadis in counterterrorism raids


 

 

Ten people suspected of using encrypted social networks to prepare a possible attack have been arrested in counterterrorism operations in France and Switzerland, according to French officials.

It’s every day in Europe — and the enemedia in the USA blithely ignore it.

As an aside, the authorities should not reveal that they are discovering these plots via the app Telegram. If we know anything about the global jihad movement, it is adaptable and mutable. They plan for failure; it’s why they have been able to continue to grow and spread despite the extensive, albeit sharia-compliant, counter terrorism programs in the West.

Police cite developing plots involving encrypted social media to commit unspecified acts

The Associated Press Posted: Nov 07, 2017:

Ten people suspected of using encrypted social networks to prepare a possible attack were arrested Tuesday in counterterrorism operations in France and Switzerland, according to French officials.

Among those arrested were a 23-year-old Colombian woman and 27-year-old Swiss man, both targets of a Swiss investigation into banned Islamic extremist groups.

Searches were still underway Tuesday afternoon in the Paris suburbs and in southeastern France.

Counterterrorism investigators detained nine people in France and one in Switzerland in operations aimed at clarifying details of the suspected plot, according to a French judicial official. The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss an ongoing investigation, would not provide details about their identities.

Violent acts

In parallel to the Swiss investigation, French authorities opened a probe in July focused on suspicious activity by a person in Switzerland using the Telegram network, according to a French judicial official.

The Swiss-based chief suspect had communicated with people in France on social networks about unspecified violent acts, the official said.

A French security official said the suspected plot did not appear to be fully developed but authorities acted Tuesday out of concern that the group was moving toward action.

Among French towns targeted in the operation were Aix-en-Provence in southern France and Menton on the Mediterranean coast as well as Paris suburbs, according to the security official.

The office of Swiss Attorney General Michael Lauber said the arrest there followed searches of buildings in the French-speaking Vaud and Neuchatel regions of western Switzerland.

American Thinker: Honor Killing Victim Jessica Mokdad’s Mother Leaves Islam and Apologizes to Pamela Geller


 

https://pamelageller.com/2017/10/honor-killing-mokdad-mom-apologizes.html/

 

KNIGHTFALL


Knightfall

Series Premiere Wed Dec 6 at 10/9c

http://www.history.com/shows/knightfall

 

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Jacques DeMolay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, cursed a king and a pope as he burned at the stake — launching an undying myth

Posted on Updated

SEVEN hundred years ago, a dying knight uttered a curse as the flames of the pyre he was tied to lapped at his feet. Those words continue to haunt us even now.

That knight was Jacques de Molay.

He was the Grand Master of the Order of the Poor Knights of the Temple of Solomon, generally known as the Knights Templar.

A fraction more than two centuries after the Knights of Order of the Temple of Solomon had been founded amid the rubble of Jerusalem to defend the Holy Land, it would now be ended by flame in the heart of Paris.

Betrayed by a king he trusted and a pope he was sworn to obey, in his final hours DeMolay fought fervently against the false charges which had destroyed his international network of Christian warriors.

His dying curse was powerful. And effective.

S’en vendra en brief temps meschie / Let evil swiftly befall

Sus celz qui nous dampnent a tort; / Those who have wrongly condemned us;

Diex en vengera nostre mort. / God will avenge our death.

Pope Clement V, complicit by design or cowardice, was dead 33 days later — from a severe bout of dysentery brought about by advanced bowel cancer.

King Philip IV of France, who had been happy to kill and defame Christendom’s defenders for their wealth and land, died within eight months. This time it was a hunting accident.

It was the final act in a power play that makes the schemes of Game of Thrones seem like mere schoolyard squabbles.

De Molay, oddly, lives on.

A contemporary source tells of a group of monks secretly swimming to his funeral pyre on an island in Paris’ River Seine to gather up the old man’s bones as holy relics. His name has echoed through history ever since.

The idea of the Order of the Temple itself refused to die.

Though formally disbanded and its assets nominally handed over to their arch rivals — the Knights Hospitaller — there were few untouched enclaves of Templars who changed their name to escape retribution.

But the black-and-white banner of the Poor Knights would rise time and again throughout history by the oppressed and those seeking association with secrets, occult and mystery.

And, as the likes of The DaVinci Code, Game of Thrones and Ivanhoe attest, it’s an idea that resonates even now.

SIGNED, SEALED — AND DELIVERED?

De Molay’s last stand was something of a surprise.

The supreme commander of more than 2000 knights, sergeants and attendants had put up a pitiful performance after the sudden arrest of his brethren on Friday, October 13, 1307. It was a date that would go down in infamy for its ill fortune.

It had been an extraordinary operation: King Philip’s sheriffs all through France had been secretly notified to conduct the coordinated arrests that same night. Once hauled forward to face trumped up charges of heresy, sodomy and sedition, the stunned church seemed powerless to defend its own. Torture did the rest, quickly extracting confessions for the most heinous of crimes — heresy.

But by 1314 the scandal had died down. The arrest and accusations against the Templars was old news. The fate of its members — and its wealth — seemed little more than a formality.

A papal commission of inquiry was appointed to pass final judgment on four of the Templar’s most senior commanders. Two of the inquisitors were considered “royal” men — being close associates of King Philip “the Fair”. The third cardinal was one of Pope Clement’s closest friends.

Naturally, the outcome was a foregone conclusion.

It was to be a public show trial, carefully scripted and conducted under the watchful eye of King Philip’s city guard and most loyal followers and performed on scaffolding erected in front of the famous Notre Dame cathedral.

But something inside de Molay had changed.

The seven years of torture and imprisonment had not weakened his spirit. It had reinforced it.

In fact, the Grand Master had been held in solitary confinement the dungeon of his own Paris fortress for the previous four years. Now in his 70s, de Molay’s body must have been wracked by injury, malnutrition and lack of sunlight.

Stepping out into the warm light and seeing his brothers-in-arms again after so long must have ignited his spirit in a way it had never been before.

He and his colleagues — Geoffroi de Charney, Hughes de Pairaud and Goeffroi de Gonneville — were dressed in their Order’s iconic white robes emblazoned with the blood-red cross and paraded in front of the crowd.

It was intended to be their final humiliation.

LAST ACT OF DEFIANCE

The people of Paris were expecting a show. A performance. A tragedy.

They got what they wanted — but not the anticipated script.

The day, March 18, 1314, started well. The full list of charges was read out to the crowd: Heresy. Homosexuality. Corruption.

All were reminded that the Templar commanders — including de Molay — had long since confessed to these most awful of crimes.

It was time to pass sentence. As the senior cardinal began to read from a decree announcing that the three Templar leaders would face perpetual imprisonment, he was unexpectedly interrupted.

By de Molay.

The Grand Master who had seemingly confessed so easily to such serious sin seven years earlier — and who had refused to speak out during the show trials which followed — finally found his voice.

He demanded to be heard.

He asserted his innocence, and that of his colleagues. He accused the king and pope of false accusations and of rigging the trials.

The crowd was shocked.

They knew what this meant.

An unexpected spectacle: A burning at the stake.

Such was the fate of all confessed heretics who renounced their crimes.

But the performance was not yet over.

De Molay’s old colleague under the searing sun of the Holy Land, Geoffroi de Charney, suddenly took up the battle cry.

Both launched into a forceful defence of their innocence and a blistering attack on those who sought to steal their land, their power, and their honour.

They harangued the esteemed cardinals for their complicity. They emphatically denied the allegations and pointedly revoked every aspect of their prior confessions.

De Molay and de Charney knew the consequences.

So did the remaining two Templar officials — de Pairaud and de Gonneville. Both cowered into the background, abandoning their superiors to their last stand.

The cardinals were stunned. They quickly fled the uproarious scene.

The king’s men knew what to do. Such a revocation of guilt meant the Grand Master and the Preceptor of Normandy had voided the protection of the Church and were now under royal jurisdiction.

They dragged the two Templars away.

FINAL OUTRAGE

King Philip heard of the outburst within minutes. His extravagant new palace was just a few hundred meters up the road.

It was too much for the troubled king to tolerate. His family was torn by scandal — the wives of his three sons all having been found guilty of adultery only months earlier. Any other such challenge to his flagging authority and reputation needed to be stamped upon, and quickly.

He summoned an immediate session of his royal council.

Nominally it was to discuss and pass judgment upon the two relapsed heretics. In reality it was most likely a shouting session.

The verdict was arbitrary anyway.

King Philip gave the two Templars what they wanted.

He immediately issued his decree: Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney were to be burnt at the stake that very evening, at the hour of Vespers.

The place of execution was ordered to be a small sandbank at the foot of the island in the middle of medieval Paris which formed the seat of royal and religious power.

It sat in full view of the island’s royal gardens and palace, and of the Monastery of St Augustine on the opposite bank of the River Seine.

Meanwhile, the Templars Hughes de Pairaud and Goeffroi de Gonneville had been whisked away by church officials to serve their sentences of life imprisonment. Both would die prolonged, miserable deaths.

BURNING RIGHTEOUSNESS

De Molay and De Charney were bundled through the seething crowds filling Paris’ streets. Word of their fate had spread. Nobody wanted to miss the show.

It was the end of an era. All knew this.

All wanted to see how this suddenly courageous Grand Master faced his death.

Chroniclers from the time tell of how de Molay willingly cast off his clothes and walked up to the pyre dressed only in his undershirt. Some say he asked to be tied to the stake with his hands free so he could pray.

All paint a picture of a calm and determined man, content with his fate.

As the flames took hold, they seem to have only ignited anger within the old knight.

The Chronicler of Paris wrote:

Seignors, dis il, sachiez, sans tere, / Sirs, he said, know, without any doubt

Que touz celz qui nous sont contrere / That all those who are against us

Por nous en arront a souffrir. / For us will have to suffer.

It was an age of superstition. While the sparks of the Renaissance were beginning to fly — particularly among the new universities of Paris — there was still a pervasive belief in the power of curses, prayer and prophecy.

The chroniclers tell of “how gently” de Molay met his execution.

To the silent crowd, this would have only added to the power of his final words.

De Charney, seeing the extraordinary manner in which his commander had died, declared he was proud to burn in the colours of his Order, and desired to do so with the same grace as his Grand Master.

The righteous piety in which the two knights were immolated was in stark contrast to the stories of cowardice, corruption and heresy the Paris crowd had been sold over so many years.

Their deaths invoked so much admiration among the crowd that it inspired centuries of doubt as to their guilt.

It also inspired the myths that seemingly will not die.

THE TEMPLAR CODE

It’s a story with stark relevance to the modern world.

The Templars were, in essence, an international corporation. A network of farms, estates, banks and markets which fed a bureaucracy full of infighting, divergent purposes and ambition under the helm of a single chief executive officer — in this case Jacques de Molay.

King Philip’s government was bankrupt. He’d squandered his wealth on a series of failed wars and expensive monuments to his ego. He needed cash. He needed income. He lusted for power.

The manner in which the hearts and minds of Europe’s pious public were played, how the legal system was manipulated and how the cowed Catholic Church capitulated still triggers fears of grand-scale, high-level conspiracy and corruption.

But the Templars themselves — as pious knights, as warrior-monks sworn to fight for their beliefs — reflect our fear for modern religious-inspired terrorism and the righteous claims of those who fight against it.

Add to the mix the charges of heresy, magic and conspiracy and you have a rich recipe few authors — and charlatans — can resist.

They’ve been linked to the Turin Shroud, the Holy Grail and the ‘hidden bloodline’ of Jesus Christ.

From Ivanhoe to Indiana JonesHellbound to Assassin’s CreedKingdom of Heaven to The DaVinci Code — the myth of the Templars all play a part.

And the name of the Order has been invoked by secret societies for centuries, seeking to draw upon the mystical might of the knights’ name.

It’s a power still present today: One of Mexico’s most powerful drug gangs has twisted the image, and the name — The Knights Templar Cartel — to suit their own anti-authoritarian needs.

But put aside the myth and the mayhem and you will find the real history of the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ of the Temple of Jerusalem to be fully fascinating in itself.

As the final hours of Jacques de Molay show: There is no need for embellishment.

in news.com.au

Turkey’s President Erdogan Makes Stunning Admission About American Hostages


Turkey’s President Erdogan Makes Stunning Admission About American Hostages

Turkey's President Erdogan Makes Stunning Admission About American Hostages

So apparently there are a dozen American citizens being held hostage by the Turkey government and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. They are, seemingly, facing long prison sentences as the Turkey government believes they were part of a failed coup to overthrow the government last year.

Among them are a NASA scientist, a Christian millionaire (who has lived in the country for 23 years), and two brothers one being a real estate agent and the other a chemistry professor.

As reported by  for NY Times:

H/T: https://steadfastandloyal.com/unreal/turkeys-president-erdogan-makes-stunning-admission-about-american-hostages/

Burma – Myanmar’s Decades-Old Jihadi Curse.


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Myanmar’s decades-old jihadi curse. 

Islam is Making Serious Advances in the Balkans By Pamela Geller


Islam is Making Serious Advances in the Balkans

Balkans-map

I received this alarming email about the situation in the Balkans:

Dear Pamela,

I had trouble to write you this, but please read this email. It is about the current situation in the Balkans and in some cases it is getting serious. I am a 28-year-old Bosnian Serb who currently lives in Croatia. I am a longtime reader of your blog and you’re one of the unsung heroes of our time.

So where do I start when it comes to Islam and the Balkans? I will start from Macedonia, a country which is under tremendous pressure from the EU and its Islamic community. Macedonia is already 35% Muslim, with the capital Skopje being 25% Muslim. I mean North Macedonia has a Muslim majority, where about 16 years there was the Albanian insurgency, but Zoran Zaev, the current Prime Minister of Macedonia, has bigger plans, has an Islamic vision for the country. Zaev, an ethnic Albanian, wants to draw up legislation that will make Macedonia a bi-national state of Macedonians and Albanians, that means abolishing the current Macedonian flag, its symbols and institute bilingualism. The local elections are nearing in Macedonia and Zaev has even more sinister plans. Together with EU money, Zaev plans to build asylum centers for Muslim asylum seekers which come from the worst hellholes of the Muslim Middle East, and those asylum centers will be built in majority Christian Macedonian areas, so Zaev intends to further Islamize Macedonia. From what I saw on Facebook from some Macedonians on an anti-immigration page, there was a petition to stop construction of such monstrosities. Anyways, if Macedonians don’t stop Zaev, Macedonia will be the first domino to fall.

But the most critical stories come from Serbia. I mean no country has such a treasonous leadership in Eastern Europe like Serbia. Its leadership, under the advice of Angela Merkel, the EU and other international organizations, is rushing to destroy what is left of Serbia, starting with the fact that Serbia is one of the hardest-hit countries when it came to the migrant invasion of 2015. Instead of building a fence together with Macedonia, Aleksandar Vucic and his government have listened to Merkel, and the citizens of Serbia are paying the price two years later. It isn’t reported in the media, but Serbia has been hit by migrant crime, rape and terror, especially the northern region of Vojvodina, where there are migrant camps. The towns of Sid, Subotica and Sombor are under siege by Muslim asylum seekers who rob, attack and rape local citizens. Parts of Belgrade are turning into war zones where migrants attack police officers. In Obrenovac, a town near Belgrade, asylum seekers, the so-called rocket scientists and engineers as Merkel called them, have raped a 13-year-old boy last year. Meanwhile Vucic is doing his best to accommodate the asylum seekers, which includes a plan to colonize Serbia, especially the southeastern parts which border with Bulgaria. Currently in Serbia there are 4000-6000 Muslim asylum seekers, and they are wreaking havoc. Just recently, I have read there are 1000 migrant children, and all of them are going to Serbian schools with Serbian children, and the Serbian government has kept it under the rug, until a group of parents in Sid (a border town with Croatia) have organized protests and gave an ultimatum not to send migrant children in their schools, which has successfully worked. However, other schools have received migrant children (which included the town of Adasevci where they put 40 migrant children in a school 150 children) and Serbian children together with their parents and teachers are in a world of hurt in a year or two. All this comes just 17 years after the NATO bombing of Serbia and only 14 years after the pogrom of Serbs in Kosovo, but some Serbs see the parallels with what happened in Kosovo and the 2015 Muslim invasion, which two years later is starting to wreck the country.

Also in Montenegro last year, there was a fight between the locals and Muslim asylum seekers in Podgorica, the capital of the country, when a Muslim asylum seeker attacked a pensioner.

But in Bosnia-Herzegovina, there is a quiet Arab invasion. In the last couple of years, through legal channels and means, tens of thousands of Arabs have settled in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Arabs are increasingly buying property in Sarajevo. Of course, this is happening under the watch of Bakir Izetbegovic, the son of the notorious Alija Izetbegovic. And early alarm bells about the Arabization of Bosnia-Herzegovina are sounding. Dragan Covic, who is the Croatian member of the Bosnian presidency, is worried, and he fears that an Arab state is being built in Bosnia. So is the leadership of Republika Srpska (the Serbian entity), who see this as a potential threat. But the signs of jihad are springing up. Weeks ago in the village of Ljubace near Zenica, where Croats live, somebody put the black flag of jihad to fly, which the police immediately removed. The same thing happened in the village of Prasci near Tuzla. Also near Tuzla is the notorious village of Gornja Maoca, which Islamic terrorists use as their planning and recruiting center, and which even after all these years and warnings hasn’t been cleaned up due to the inaction of the Bosnian government, most notably Bakir Izetbegovic. When Croatian president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovich talked about Islamic terrorism in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bakir Izetbegovic, together with Muslim groups and the Muslim clergy, condemned her and called her an Islamophobe. But there is nothing Islamophobic about warning about Islamic terrorism, yet like his father, Izebegovic played the victim card.

Croatia itself was rocked by a number of sex assaults in Zagreb during the summer, which were committed by Muslim asylum seekers who passed through the Balkan route in 2015. But a suburb of Dugave is feeling the pressure of the asylum center and the asylum seekers who plan their next moves. In the last two years, there have been robberies and attacks on local residents, their bikes were stolen, and mostly residents don’t go out at night. The Croatian government wants to relocate asylum seekers somewhere else, like near the Serbian border near Bajakovo. The problem is that the population doesn’t like it and if they do relocate them there they plan a protest.

In Slovenia, Muslim asylum seekers went a step further. They began to desecrate churches, which was reported by the Slovenian branch of Generation Identity, while the Slovenian government is in cahoots with Merkel.

The thing is, I am worried that we are going down the same road as Western Europe went. Also the problem is deeply political as well, Merkel and the EU own every single government in former Yugoslavia, and only Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic is showing some resistance. That is because she is with Trump and very pro-American. Also she wants to tie Croatia with the Visegrad Group, and that is why Merkel has a contempt for her. While the rest are preparing to send us to hell.

This is the pdf document which documents Muslim war crimes city-by-city during the Croat-Muslim War. It was written by Ivica Mlivoncic, who wrote a book titled Al-Qaeda Fought in Bosnia-Herzegovina: The Role of the Mujahideen in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1991 to 2005. By far for me one of the best books on Islamic terrorism. It is 700 pages and features a huge amount of original documents about Islamic terrorism before, during and after the Bosnian War. The only problem is that it is in Croatian, and in my local library it disappeared years ago. But I knew it was there I had read it, but someone had either stole the book or the library had it mysteriously pulled off the shelves.
Here are two pdf files (one, two) which are about about Muslim War Crimes against Croats which include writings of Ivica Milivoncic who wrote a book about Islamic terrorism in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the pdf files include images of dead Bosnian Croats who were killed by the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina as well their suffering and the persecution. Also today there are two sad anniversaries. Anto Garić was only four months old when he was killed by a grenade which the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina threw into a hospital, and it bounced into the room of the home he lived. Anto Garić is the youngest victim of the Muslim murderers in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and he had never a chance to grow up, and nobody was arrested for such a crime. Ante Valjan was a Croatian police office in Travnik and in 1998, three years after the war ended, he was killed in a bomb attack near the police station in Travnik. Nobody was arrested to this day for such a thing.

Pamela Geller’s shocking new book, “FATWA: HUNTED IN AMERICA” is now available on Amazon. It’s Geller’s tell all, her story – and it’s every story – it’s what happens when you stand for freedom today. Buy it. Now. Here.

Donald Trump delivers first speech to U.N. General Assembly


 

 

 

 

 

Donald Trump delivers his first speech as president in front of the United Nations General Assembly in New York.

That Was Something!

 

This is the true story of the Ground Zero mosque controversy.


This is the true story of the Ground Zero mosque controversy.

Illegal immigrants in Europe


Enough Is Enough…

Dakota Johnson SNL – ISIS Commercial (plus original commercial snippet)


 

Crusader wreck tells tale of Crusader Holy Land conquest


CHRISTIAN knights and Mameluke warriors were fighting on the walls. Now the wreck of a 13th century ship reveals the desperate bid to save the Holy Land.

The port of the city of Acre was a vital lifeline for Crusader knights and settlers alike. Through it streamed European pilgrims, horses, fighting men and manufacturing goods, all vital to sustain Christianity’s tenuous hold in what would later become Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Israel.

In return, ships carried precious cargoes of sugar, spice and exotic textiles.

But, in 1291, it all came crashing down.

The Egyptian Mameluke Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil — leading an army of 100,000 men and horses — rolled back the Christian defences, weakened by almost two centuries of fighting to maintain control over the Holy Land.

European interest was failing — despite efforts by Pope Gregory X to summon reinforcements. And the militant orders — international organisations of warrior-monks…

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Happy Swiss National Day


1291 The End Of The Kindom Of Jerusalem, The Birth Of A Confederation. Brave Crusaders Fighting For This Land, This New Country. A Land Of Rules And Of Freedoms.

Wil.

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The Federal Charter of 1291

The Federal Charter from early August 1291 is Switzerland’s oldest constitutional document. In this ancient pact, the valley communities of Central Switzerland, Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden pledged to help each other resist any threat of violence or injustice. Foreign judges were not to be tolerated, while the existing power balance remained intact.

The federal charter of 1291
Procedures for criminal and civil cases and for disputes among the signatories were also laid down.

This Federal Charter has been officially regarded as the founding document of the Swiss Confederation only since the end of the 19th century. The Federal Council was primarily responsible for this, as, taking its lead from the charter itself, it organised national jubilee celebrations in 1891 and then in 1899 made 1 August the National Day of the Swiss Confederation.

Underlying this was the conviction that the democratic Federal State of 1848 represented a continuation of the Old Swiss Confederacy that existed before 1798, and that the historical nucleus of this Confederacy lay in the Alpine regions of Central Switzerland. This belief was linked to the legend that a group of freedom-loving men had sworn an oath of confederate alliance on the Rütli meadow above Lake Lucerne. This view of history has since been instilled in every Swiss schoolchild as a compulsory element of the curriculum.

Invoking the Federal Charter as the most venerable version of the Swiss Constitution and thus establishing a centuries-old, binding tradition of a society sworn to uphold freedom helped to cement national cohesion in the democratic Federal State. The pressure of political developments after 1930 led to the Federal Charter being regarded as more than simply the basis for a defensive alliance, but as a resolute response to the threat posed by foreign powers.

Thus, through the practical application of this lesson in history, the public came to perceive this ostensibly unprepossessing document with its symbolic character as a key element of Swiss historical and political culture in general. This also led to the Federal Charter Archive being established in Schwyz simply in order to house the Federal Charter. The Archive, in 1999 renamed the Museum of Swiss Charters, was opened as a national memorial in a ceremony in 1936.

The Old Swiss Confederacy, however, was far less significant in the late middle ages, and it was not unique either. It constituted a peaceful alliance of a type also found elsewhere at the time. The Charter certainly did not amount to a revolutionary act of self-determination by the peasantry, but rather secured the status quo in the interests of the local elites.

For centuries, this alliance of the valleys of Central Switzerland from 1291 received practically no mention, the document itself only being rediscovered in 1758 in the Schwyz archives. In the constitutional tradition of the Old Confederacy prior to 1798, the alliance of 1291, in contrast to the Federal Charter of 1315 (Pact of Brunnen), played no role. Nor is there any indication that it served as a model for subsequent federal alliances. Unanswerable questions relating to its historical provenance and interpretation also suggest that the contemporary importance of this document in more recent times has been considerably overestimated.

An appropriate assessment of the historical circumstances does not detract from the enormous cultural value of this prominent document, which is still referred to regularly in present day political debates.

Summary of the Latin text

For the common good and proper establishment of peace, the following rules are agreed :

  1. In view of the troubled circumstances of this time, the people and communities of Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden promise to assist each other by every means possible against one and all who may inflict on them violence or injustice within their valleys and without.
  2. Each community shall help the other with every counsel and favour and at its own expense in the event of any assault on persons or goods within and without the valleys and to this end have sworn a solemn oath to uphold this agreement in confirmation and renewal of a more ancient accord.
  3. Every man shall continue to serve his overlord to the best of his abilities.
  4. The office of judge may not be obtained for any price and may only be exercised by those who are natives or resident with us.
  5. Any dispute amongst the Confederates shall be settled by the most prudent amongst us, whose decision shall be defended by all.
  6. Those who commit murder shall themselves be put to death. A murderer who flees may never return. Those who protect him shall themselves be banished from the valley until they are recalled by the Confederates.
  7. Those who maliciously injure others by fire shall lose their rights as fellow countrymen, and anyone who protects and defends such an evil-doer shall be held liable for the damage done.
  8. Any man who robs a Confederate or injures him in any way shall be held liable to the extent of his property in the valleys.
  9. The property of debtors or sureties may only be seized with the permission of a judge
  10. Every man shall obey his judge and must if need be indicate the judge in the valley before whom he must appear.
  11. Any man who rebels against a verdict and thereby injures a Confederate shall be compelled by all other Confederates to make good the damage done.
  12. War or discord amongst the Confederates shall be settled by an arbiter and if any party fails to accept the decision or fails to make good the damage, the Confederates are bound to defend the other party.
  13. These rules for the common good shall endure forever.

Done with the seals of the three aforementioned communities and valleys at the beginning of August 1291.


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